"The level of activity has shown a continuous decrease since the mild phreatic unrest in March. Sulfur dioxide plumes drifted SE on 5 and 31 January. An aerial inspection on 1 October, as part of the Ulawun Decade Volcano workshop, showed the summit crater to be open, ~150-200 m in diameter, with vertical sides descending at least 50 m before being lost in thick white fume. Police were considering the evacuation of Ulamona Catholic mission, the settlement closest to the volcano. The eruption column at that time was about 2 km high and was lightly laden with ash. They reached 2.4-3.7 km altitude and drifted 45-95 km NNE. Very fine ashfall was reported on the NW side of the volcano on 28 April, and steady weak red glow was seen on the 30th. The few records that were readable appeared to show low-frequency events or short bursts of tremor at times consistent with the RSAM observations. Seismic activity remained high at Ulawun Volcano in July 2008. Ash from earlier ejections continued to drift S at 13.4 km a.s.l. Along its course it overflowed into Ubili village. ", "Activity remained at a low level in October. There were some variations in the tremor level 26-27 January, producing slight 'banding' on Helicorder records. An eruption began in the morning hours of 26 June with emissions of gray ash (figure 17) that over time became darker and more energetic. This flow originated from a fissure about 70 m below the summit crater, and although it moved rapidly at first on the steep upper slopes of the volcano (it may have advanced about 3 km downslope in the first few hours), its progress became very slow when it reached the volcano's gentler middle slopes. "Volcanologists carried out an aerial inspection at about 0700 the next day and observed regular Strombolian ejections of incandescent lava every few seconds to heights of about 200 m above the summit crater. The eruption was reported to have begun at about 1830, following, or in association with, a rapid increase in the amplitude of the harmonic tremor. Galeras is an andesitic stratovolcano that is part of an older volcanic complex. The increased seismicity . During August, summit activity remained low, chiefly consisting of weak releases of thin white vapor. RVO reported that white and gray-to-brown plumes rose no more than a few hundred meters above Ulawun during 12-24 August, and fine ash fell on the NW and W flanks. This comparatively high number of earthquakes continued through July and August. Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System. Ash at an altitude of 13.7 km drifted SW to SE and dissipated by 1620, and ash at 16.8 km drifted NW to NE and dissipated by 1857. Seismicity was low during the first week of January, the first three weeks of February, and the first three weeks of March; the seismograph was not operational at other times. The plume extended toward the NW. On 22 June noises heard in villages to the NE accompanied some of the earthquakes. Reports from Diego Coppola and David A. Rothery provided analyses of MODIS thermal alerts during 2001 and 2002 (using the MODVOLC alert-detection algorithm) extracted from the MODIS Thermal Alerts website (http://modis.hgip.hawaii.edu/) maintained by the University of Hawaii HIGP MODIS Thermal Alerts team (BGVN 28:01). Due to technical problems with the only seismograph to monitor Ulawun, no analogue waveforms were recorded, making it difficult to ascertain the type of seismicity associated with the increased RSAM values. and drifting to the NW and SW. Satellite imagery indicated that the cloud may have reached ~13.7 km a.s.l. Activity quieted after that and by 2 November emissions had returned to white vapor without noise or night glow. Microscopic examination of ash samples indicates that the ash is very fine grained with a large proportion of accessory material. Residents also reported a lava flow near Noau village and Eana Valley. At the beginning of the month, emissions consisted of moderate white vapour. and extending ~75 km NW. On 2 October lava fountains rose several hundred meters and ash-and-steam plumes rose to variable heights between 2 and 5 km, causing ashfall in Navo (W). Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. Quiet during early 2004; thin ash plumes 12-14 April. Seismicity was also low. The daily totals then increased steadily through the remainder of the month to ~630 at month's end. Plume evident on 10/2019Z and 11/0357Z NOAA image[s], height estimated below 3 km. A Post Courier news article stated that the eruption began at 0230 on 29 September, but due to communication problems with the Rabaul Volcano Observatory's Mount Ulamona monitoring station they did not receive reports of the eruption until about 0800. The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center posted two reports on Ulawun. Small low level plume detected on visible satellite imagery at 11/2100Z. Seismicity was low. Tremor ceased altogether with the end of explosive activity on 13 May. Information Contacts: I. Itikarai, P. de Saint-Ours, and C. McKee, RVO. Information Contacts: D. Lolok, B. Talai, and P. Lowenstein, RVO. Eruptive activity with ash plumes occurred during May and November-December 2012, and July-December 2013. Thin ash plume to 5 km extending 25 NM WSW of summit on 02/2108Z. . At times of low winds, the vapour column rose to over 2 km above the summit. | April Residents evacuated to areas to the NE and W; a news article (Radio New Zealand) noted that around 3,000 people had gathered at a local church. People on the S and SE sides of the island heard "low jetting" noises during 24-25 May. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 November an ash plume from Ulawun rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. Gas effervescence was reported close offshore of Ulamona Jetty in the second half of April. On 29 June a news article stated that around 11,000 people remained evacuated to shelters. Our previous reporting noted steam plumes and increased seismicity in February 2010 (BGVN 35:02), which followed a multi-year interval of comparative quiet (BGVN 33:03 and 34:10). Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea. The shape and width of the ash cloud were relatively constant until about 1840 when the ash cloud became too diffuse to separate from the surrounding meteorological clouds. Pilot report noted an ash plume to an altitude of 2.4 km drifting SW. High-frequency volcano-tectonic earthquake, Felt by island residents with Modified Mercalli (MM) intensity up to IV, In central New Britain centered~30-40 km SSE of Bialla town (70-80 km). ", "Ulawun remained in a non-erupting state, releasing only weak to moderate white vapour. Information Contacts: P. de Saint Ours and P. Lowenstein, RVO. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. No significant changes were noted in January. Weak to moderate emissions of white vapour were released from the summit crater, and the seismicity was at a very low level.". Activity during August 2019. The increased RSAM values reported above were associated with ongoing sporadic phases of volcanic tremors which had been going on since about March 2012. Some areas of the plumes were gray on 22 and 25 May. Information Contacts: Darwin VAAC, Regional Director, Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, Northern Territory 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Simon Carn, Joint Center for Earth System Technology (NASA/UMBC), University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle Baltimore, MD 21250. The Darwin VAAC reported steam-and-ash plumes from Ulawun that were visible on satellite imagery on 25, 27, and 28 August. On 6 June, the elevated characteristics of the forceful emissions of 28-29 May were repeated. Observed seismicity was low to moderate. Similar seismicity has been recorded previously at Ulawun, and at Karkar prior to its 1979 eruption. Diffuse plume to altitude of 4.6 km drifted NW. . From mid-January until 21 March, seismicity had been fluctuating between 400 and 1200 B-type volcanic shocks of moderate amplitude per day, in an apparently cyclic manner with a period of 16 days. A brief interval of low amplitudes followed the crisis of 17-18 June, but a steady rise in amplitudes was recorded beginning 20 June. During 5-8 July RVO noted a slight increase in seismicity (above moderate levels), which included tremor. The historic account of an eruption of Ulawun volcano was by the English discoverer William Dampier (1651-1715) in 1700. "At the commencement of the strong, visible activity, the seismic activity intensified dramatically, becoming continuous tremor, which persisted until about 1215 on 7 October. The daily totals of volcanic earthquakes increased on 2 December and averaged ~150 until the 17th. drifted NW to NE and dissipated by 1857. The Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 November an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km and drifted over 45 km E. More ash plumes were noted during 16-18 November that rose to altitudes of 2.7-3 km and drifted over 30 km SE, SW, and W. Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), PO Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea; Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/). "On 17 April, 5 periods of tremor occurred. 2018: June Somewhat larger events resembling short bursts of volcanic tremor occurred on 2-3 May. Behavior in the days prior to the 25 April eruption. The next day weak-to-moderate thin white vapor was observed. Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. continued the pattern of previous months, with mainly sub-continuous, low-level, low-frequency tremor, and the occasional larger low-frequency earthquake. Observers in aircraft approaching from the NE noted that at about 0640 the emission cloud above Ulawun was slightly more voluminous than normal, and was reported as pale to dark. The Alert Level was lowered to Stage 1. Seismicity fluctuated between low and moderate, marked by small low-frequency earthquakes and small sporadic volcanic tremors. The RSAM values led to discussions with civil authorities and directions to local residents throughout the night at two-hour intervals. Information Contacts: Ima Itikarai, Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. Large regional earthquakes near Ulawun that occurred on the days 2, 3, and 24 June and 18 July 2010. A small landslide scar appeared near the N valley flank vent, reportedly caused by a large bolder and loose material sliding, triggered by a M 6.1 earthquake centered near Pomio (55 km SSE) on 19 November. . drifted SW to SE and dissipated by 1620, and ash at 16.8 km (55,000 ft) a.s.l. People between Sena Estate and Noau on the N flank reported ashfall in early December. Stromboli is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth and has been erupting almost continuously since 1932. Seismicity was low throughout the month.". Ulawun has erupted at least 21 times since 1700. A distinct lull also preceded the third period. The period 25 June-22 July was quiet, with no audible noise or night-time glow, and weak to moderate volumes of vapor from the main summit crater. When the system was restored, daily earthquake totals were ~400-500. extending as far as ~90 km. Sabretoothed69, 2010 (uploaded on 7 November 2010), YouTube (URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnCSeky3Mes, uploaded by sabretoothed69). No change was noted in the summit crater emissions. This tremor became strong and continuous with the commencement of visible activity, and maximum amplitudes were recorded during the first night. Seismicity started to decline on 25 January and dropped sharply to normal levels on the 27th, marking the end of the eruption. Table 3. Discrete low-frequency earthquakes continued to occur in small numbers. Additional reports by RVO in February and April 2009 noted that the volcano remained quiet, only releasing white vapor, with no reports of glow at night. Intermittent ash plumes during September-October. An ash plume from Ulawun was visible on satellite imagery on 22 September at a height of ~3.7 km a.s.l. Information Contacts: P. de Saint-Ours, RVO. no tremor was recorded.". A white vapor plume was present throughout September; it appeared to vary in thickness, probably as a result of atmospheric conditions. Fluctuating incandescence from the crater was observed at night during 28-29 May, 6-10 June, 13 June, and 16-25 June. On the basis of tilt measurements, it is speculated that a magmatic eruption could still take place, although it is not considered to be imminent.". . White vapours were released in weak to moderate volume by the summit crater. The vent in the main crater released weak-to-moderate volumes of white and white-gray vapor. During 2017, sporadic explosions occurred between late June through early November with ash plumes rising no more than 3 km in altitude (BGVN 42:12). In February there was 2 µrad of deflation, and measurements showed a very small amount (~2-3 µrad) of deflation between the beginning of March through the 25th. Seismic activity was very low in October-November and unreported for December. Activity remained low from September through December 1994. During 28-29 June diffuse white plumes continued to rise from the crater and from the North Valley vent. Increased seismicity has been observed at Ulawun, but surface activity remained limited to release of small to moderate volumes of white vapor until late September. When visible, weak-moderate white vapour emissions were observed. During 28-29 June diffuse white plumes continued to rise from the crater (figure 20) and from the North Valley vent. Distinct B-type events continued, but in very low numbers. "Dry tilt and EDM measurements were carried out on 2 and 12 January. The emissions on the 13th rose to about 2000 m above the summit. Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Geohazards Management Division, Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM), PO Box 3386, Kokopo, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea; Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://SO2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Christopher Lagisa, West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea (URL: https://www.facebook.com/christopher.lagisa, images posted at https://www.facebook.com/christopher.lagisa/posts/730662937360239 and https://www.facebook.com/christopher.lagisa/posts/730215604071639). The Darwin VAAC advisory noted that an ash plume rose to 4.6-6 km altitude, drifting SW and W, based on ground reports. Small, felt earthquakes occurred and the sound of roaring was heard by nearby villagers. Based on satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 November a diffuse plume from Ulawun reached an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. According to the Darwin VAAC, a steam-and-ash emission from Ulawun was identified in satellite images and reported by ground observers on 5 October, rising to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. RVO recommended to the WNB Provincial Disaster Committee to declare a Stage 1 Alert to reflect an increasing trend of seismic energy, and a recent presence of occasional gray plumes, incandescence, and audible noises from Ulawun. Some traces of blue vapor were also visible, but no glow was observed. Discussion with RVO suggested that Ulawun often steams in roughly the same manner, but that atmospheric conditions are only sometime advantageous for seeing the plume. The seismic station 2.9 km W of the volcano was restored on 4 July and recorded small sub-continuous tremors. Ash emissions continued through the day and changed from light to dark gray with time. RVO reported that activity at Ulawun was low during 16-30 November. An aerial inspection at 1700 by an RVO volcanologist failed to confirm the presence of new ejecta on the volcano's flanks, but faint haziness possibly due to earlier ejection of fine dust was noted downwind. No emissions were reported from the two north valley vents. (Pictured) A postcard showing eruption of Mt. Little activity was evident by about 0800 on 10 May; rumblings were often heard, but only a thin wispy eruption column was present. Plumes on 11 December reached unreported altitudes. Incandescence was seen again in mid-May 2009. RVO reported that between 23 and 31 October the main summit crater continued to produce variable amounts of white gas-and-steam emissions (figure 24) and that no incandescence was observed after 5 October. Visual observation reports during 1-21 December indicated that summit activity consisted of weak-to-moderate volumes of white vapor emissions. The Darwin VAAC issued a volcanic ash advisory stating that volcanic activity was reported to them at 0605 through an air report from Air New Guinea airline, but there was evidence of an ash cloud in satellite imagery starting at about 0400. The overall level of seismicity was low, with only small low-frequency volcanic earthquakes recorded. On 25 May, the Darwin VAAC reported a thin steam-and-ash plume from Ulawun that extended 30 miles WNW. and drifted 25-110 km NW, W, and SW. RVO reported that during 1 September-15 October white vapor plumes with varying densities rose from Ulawun, although on 12 October pale gray ash plumes rose from the vent. Heavy ash fall from the eruption prompted government officials to evacuate 3,750 residents of areas near the volcano including Ubili town, Noau town, Voluvolu villages, and Navo plantations. Seismicity was at a very low level during the month. Information Contacts: I. Itikarai, R. Stewart, and C. McKee, RVO. Low-level ash plumes were noted again on 2 and 16 October, with another higher plume (~3.6 km) on the 22nd. Intermittent ash plumes during eruptive periods in May 2012, November-December 2012, July-December 2013, and October-November 2016. Seismic activity was low with RSAM values below 200 units. The Geological Survey confirms this eruption and notes that limited evacuations have commenced with the prospect of further seismic and eruptive activity. Many damaged houses had been constructed of bush materials, but some houses also included modern building materials. Ulawun is one of the most active volcanoes in Papua New Guinea and one of its most dangerous. and drifted W. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 3 November an ash plume from Ulawun rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. However, it is assumed that another of the sporadic volcanic tremor episodes recorded since the September 2000 and April 2001 eruptions was the cause. The Darwin VAAC issued advisories about low-level ash plumes on 12 and 19 September, and an ash-and-steam cloud to ~3.7 km on 28 September. "A low level of activity continued in August. Seismicity returned to background levels after volcanic tremors ceased on 18 March 2002. A check of MODVOLC thermal alerts in mid-April 2010 found no anomalies for Ulawun as far back as May 2001. Rabaul town (E) also reported ashfall. The main summit crater continued to release weak to moderate volumes of white (occasionally white-gray) vapor during 14-29 April, 7-27 May, and 11-18 June. Despite the ash plumes extending far downwind, RVO reported that during 16-31 October activity was at low levels. On 18 and 19 June, seismicity increased to a high level and was dominated by volcanic tremor. | August This is presumably the cause of the 15-pixel alert on 28 April (figure 8). and drifting W. Ash was not confirmed in satellite images, though weather clouds obscured views. Low-frequency events dominated the record, although some high-frequency activity was recorded at a daily rate of 1-6 events. In this interval a pyroclastic flow traveled N-NE following the path of the pyroclastic flow of 28-29 September 2000. During 30 June to 1 July, thin ash plumes were visible on satellite imagery, but heights were not given. 2016: October Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 26 November an ash plume from Ulawun rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. The stated dates and times are not local ones, but instead refer to those at the zero (prime) meridian. The Rabaul Volcano Observatory reported that during 1-12 October white, and sometimes light gray, emissions rose from the summit crater; seismicity was low. On 7 September a low-level (less than ~3.6 km a.s.l.) The lack of thermal anomalies may indicate explosive eruptions, and not lava emissions. "Volcano-seismic activity continued at a low level throughout most of December but increased suddenly again with the appearance of continuous harmonic tremor at 0200 on 24 December, less than 2 days after two strong regional earthquakes (ML 6.4 and 6.5, MM IV-V) about 150 km ESE of Ulawun at 0932 and 1102 on 22 December. The daily total number of low-frequency earthquakes fluctuated between 400 and 1,042 events with the highest numbers recorded on 24 June (1,032) and 8 August (1,042). It was not possible to confirm these observations from the conventional seismograph due to severe radio interference. | May Information Contacts: H. Patia, R. Stewart, and C. McKee, RVO. Unfortunately, no base line measurements are available to check whether deformation had occurred prior to the eruption.". Box 386, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea; Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/). Information based primarily on satellite data and pilot reports from the Darwin VAAC and in a few cases, the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). Periods of volcanic tremor were recorded on 15 and 29-31 May.". The summit crater emitted white vapour in weak to moderate amounts. Diffuse plumes drifting N and NW. A brief report reaching Port Moresby said there was a heavy lava flow from Mount Ulawan, the highest peak in New Britain. By 30 September seismic activity was at moderate levels. Very light ashfall was reported from Sule and Nuau. On 1 October 2019 the seismicity increased, reaching RSAM values up to 10,000 units between 0130 and 0200, according to RVO. 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